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Learning with Hypertext Learning Environments: Theory, Design and Research
1.1 Guided TCC - Learner selected TCC
1.2 Guided TCC
1.3 Results
1.4 Cognitive Flexibility Theory (CF)
1.5 Situated Action Theory (SA)
A Theory of Algebra-World Problem...

2.1 Conclusion
2.2 Feedback
Evidence for Cognitive Load Theory

3.1 Schema theory
3.2 Cognitive load theory
3.3 Goal-Free effect
3.4 Worked Example effect
3.5 Split-Attention effect
3.6 Redundancy effect
Multimedia learning...

4.1 Generative theory
4.2 Dual Coding theory
4.3 Multimedia effect
4.4 Contiguity effects
4.5 Interaction effects
4.6 Split-Attention effects
4.7 Summary
Formats de présentation...

5.1 Orientations de recherche
5.2 Charge mentale et mémoire de travail
5.3 Charge mentale et format de présentation - Résultats
Anchored Instruction

Learning with Hypertext Learning Environments:
Theory, Design and Research

(1995) Jacobson M, Maouri C, Mishra P and Cohlar C.
JI of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 4(4), 321-364.

Guided TCC - Learner selected TCC

These two hypertext treatments differed primarily in terms of the modelling and the scaffolding they provided and the degree of learner control.

Guided TCC

Students were found to perform at a significantly higher level on a knowledge synthesis task of near transfer than


Students need explicit modelling and scaffolding support in order to learn complex knowledge from a CASE-BASED, CONCEPTUALLY-INDEXED hypertext learning environment.

Cognitive Flexibility Theory (CF)

Proposes complex knowledge may be BETTER LEARNED for flexible application in new contexts by employing case-based learning environmentswith features such as:
  1. multiple knowledge representations
  2. link abstract concepts in cases (Knowledge-in-use)
  3. demonstrate the conceptual interconnectedness
  4. emphasize knowledge assembly than reproductive memory
  5. introduce conceptual and domain complexity EARLY
  6. promote active student learning

Situated Action Theory (SA)

It is a view of human cognitive processing as being fundamentally situated in contexts of activity.
Cognitive apprentiship:


A Theory of Algebra-World Problem. Comprehension and It's Implications for the Design of Learning Environments

(1992) Nathan M and Kintch W. and Young E.
Cognition and Instruction 9(4), 329-389. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

To comprehend a problem, the student must make a correspodence between the formal equations and the student's own informal understanding of the situation described in the problem.

In solving word arithmetic or word algebra problems, errors made by students can be viewed as failures to produce the intended mental representations and failures to relate the situation described in the problem statement to the formal expressions needed to produce a quantitative solution.


By using an environment that gives equations situation-based meaning through computer animation, students learn to relate formal expressions to the referent situations. The graphic network representation reduces students' memory load by constraining the sort of information that is to be considered.

Situation model: representation for events. - Problem model : formal relations in mind.


To encourage active participation by the student in the construction of the network and evaluation of the animation the tutor provides:


Evidence for Cognitive Load Theory

(1991) Sweller J. and Chandler P.
Cognition and Instruction 8(4), 351-362. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

In cognition and instruction, we do not have the luxury of choosing between various goals. There can be only one ultimate goal: the generation of new, useful instructional techniques.

Schema theory (Constructivist Theories): Humans must restructure information in order to represent it.
NOVICES solve problems using means-ends analysis, whereas EXPERTS use previously acquired schemas. To acquire a schema, one needs only to learn to classify problem states according to their appropriate moves.

Cognitive load theory: preventing students from using a means-ends strategy and encouraging them to attend to problem states and their associated moves should reduce extraneous cognitive load and so facilitate schema acquisition. In general, instructional techniques should attempt to reduce extraneaous cognitive load associated with constructing a representation because this facilitates learning.

Goal-Free effect

Worked Example effect

NOT all worked examples are effective, and ineffective worked examples may be no better than solving problems by means-ends analysis. Criterion for effectiveness is the cognitive load.

Split-Attention effect

Eliminating this effect by physically integrating the disparate sources of information resulted in the reintroduction of the worked example effect. It has a similar beneficial effect on all types of instruction.

Redundancy effect

If redundant sources of information are integrated, the effects are negative rather than positive because this imposes an extraneous cognitive load that is lifted if the material is eliminated.


Multimedia learning: Are We Asking the Right Questions?

(1997) Mayer E. Richard
Educational Psychologist 32(1), 1-19. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Generative theory

Meaningful learning occurs when learners:

Dual Coding theory

Above cognitive processes occur within two separate information processing systems:

Multimedia effect

There is strong evidence that adding a visual explanation to a verbal, one can greatly enhance student understanding, as measured by tests of problem-solving transfer.

Contiguity effects

Learners perform better when verbal and visual explanations are coordinated.

Interaction effects

Multimedia effects and Contiguity effects are strong for: learners.

Split-Attention effects

Animation with narration is more effective than Animation with text.


Contiguous presentation of visual and verbal material may be most important


Formats de présentation et complémentarité modale dans les logiciels éducatifs

(1998) Francoise Poyet
Sciences et techniques éducatives Volume 5 - no3, 245-262.

Orientations de recherche

Ergonomie - L'analyse du concept de charge mentale se fait à partir de deux critères essentiels: Psychologie - Limites des capacités de maintien et de traitement du sujet:

Charge mentale et mémoire de travail

L'administrateur, la boucle phonologique et le système visuo-spatial interviennent différemment dans le traitement et le maintien des informations en mémoire de travail:

Charge mentale et format de présentation - Résultats

L'influence de la modalité sensorielle (visuelle ou auditive) sur la mémorisation d'informations verbales (labels et explications) insérées dans un schéma technique complexe diffère selon le contenu des messages:


Anchored Instruction

John Bransford & the CTGV

It is a major paradigm for technology-based learning. The initial focus of the work was on the development of interactive videodisc tools that encourage students and teachers to pose and solve complex realistic problems.

The video materials served as anchors for subsequent learning and instruction. Anchors were stories to be explored.

Anchored Instruction is closely related to :



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© Vivian Synteta (15/02/99) updated 08/03/99